Amino-acizi naturali

Feb 10, 2018
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Amino-acizii sunt combinatii organice care contin in molecula una sau mai multe grupe amino si una sau mai multe grupe carboxil. Dupa structura, amino-acizii se impart in doua mari categorii: 1. Alifatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de o catena alifatica, chiar daca in molecula exista un nucleu aromatic. 2. Aromatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de un ciclu aromatic. Dupa asezarea relativa a grupelor functionale se deosebesc α-amino-acizi, β-amino-acizi, γ-amino-acizi, etc. Dintre amino-acizii alifatici, cei mai importanti sunt α-amino-acizi, adica acei amino-acizi care contin grupele functionale legate de acelasi atom de carbon. Se deosebesc mai multe categorii mari de α-amino-acizi alifatici: 1. monocarboxilici 2. dicarboxilici 3. hidroxi-amino-acizi 4. tioamino-acizi 5. diamino-acizi 6. amino-acizi heterociclici Denumirea Prescurtarea Formula Amino-acizi monocarboxilici Leucina (acidul α-aminoizocapronic) Leu CH3—CH—CH2—CH—COOH | | CH3 NH2 Izoleucina (acidul α-amino-β-metilvalerianic) Ileu CH3—CH2—CH — CH—COOH | | CH3 NH2 Fenilalanina (acidul α-amino-β-fenil-propionic) Fe —CH2—CH—COOH | NH2 Glicocolul(glicina) (acidul aminoacetic) Gli CH2— COOH | NH2 Alanina (acidul α-aminopropionic) Ala CH3—CH—COOH | NH2 Valina (acidul α-aminoizovalerianic) Val CH3—CH — CH—COOH | | CH3 NH2 Amino-acizi dicarboxilici Acidul asparagic (acidul aminosuccinic) Asp HOOC—CH2—CH—COOH | NH2 Acidul glutamic (acidul α-aminoglutaric) Glu HOOC—CH2— CH2—CH—COOH | NH2 Hidroxi-amino-acizi Treonina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxibutiric) Tr CH3—CH — CH—COOH | | OH NH2 Tirosina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxifenil-propionic) Ti HO —CH2—CH—COOH | NH2 Serina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxipropionic) Ser CH2 — CH—COOH | | OH NH2 Tio-amino-acizi Cistina (acidul di[α-amino-β-tiopropionic] ) Ci—S Ci—S HOOC—CH—CH2—S—S– CH2—CH—COOH | | NH2 NH2 Metionina (acidul α-amino-γ-metiltiobutiric) Met CH2— CH2—CH—COOH | | S — CH3 NH2 Cisteina (acidul α-amino-β-tiopropionic) Cis CH2 — CH—COOH | | SH NH2 Diamino-acizi Ornitina (acidul α, δ-diaminovalerianic) Or CH2— CH2—CH2—CH—COOH | | NH2 NH2 Lisina (acidul α, ε-diaminocapronic) Lis CH2— CH2—CH2—CH2—CH—COOH | | NH2 NH2 Amino-acizi heterociclici Prolina (acidul pirolidin-α-carboxilic) Pro H2C— CH2 | | H2C CH—COOH / NH Hidroxiprolina (acidul β-hidroxipirolidin-α-carboxilic) Hipro HO—HC — CH2 | | H2C CH—COOH / NH Histidina (acidul α-amino-β-imidazolil-(4)-propionic) (imidazolil-(4)-alanina) His N — C — CH2— CH—COOH || || | HC CH NH2 / NH Triptofanul (acidul α-amino-β-indolil-(3)-propionic) (indolil-(3)-alanina) Tri — CH2— CH—COOH | NH2

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